PROVOCĂRILE PANDEMIILOR VIRALE CU TRANSMITERE RESPIRATORIE: DE LA VARIOLĂ LA COVID-19
Keywords:pandemic, epidemiology, virus, respiratory transmission, smallpox, influenza, SARS-CoV-2
Infectious diseases are still in the top of mortality and morbidity causes globally. Currently, we are witnessing the emergence and re-emergence of infectious agents, as a consequence of many factors, among which the vaccine hesitancy, antibiotic resistance, global climate changes influencing the spread of certain pathogens or their vectors. The world's population growth, globalization and increasing proximity to animal reservoirs are risk factors for the emergence of new pandemics. Of all infectious threats, zoonotic diseases are the most problematic today, because animal pathogens can pass from their animal hosts to human, causing transmissible infections, such as the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), the agent of COVID-19 pandemic. In the context of a permanent epidemiological risk, it is imperative to raise the awareness of the need to improve the surveillance capacity, the real-time reporting of individual cases and outbreaks and to increase the availability of rapid and accessible diagnostic tests. The most effective pandemic control measures remain the epidemiological surveillance, limitation of inter-human contact or with animal infection reservoirs and vaccination, whenever available. However, the implementation of these prevention measures remains a permanent challenge and requires good communication and collaboration at the level of the large population.